Bullet Guide: Sizes, Calibers and Types

Last Updated on September 15, 2022 by Dwayne Easton

Getting the right gun to match the right bullet is a challenge for many beginners out there.

It was easy to find the right hunting bullets a few years back. Because there were only a handful of calibers available, this is why it was so easy to find the right bullets for hunting. In those days, bullets were simply bullets.

However, today’s bullets are quite different. There are many sizes available, which can make buying bullets difficult. The lingo used to buy the correct size bullet will confuse newbies in the shooting industry.

This bullet guide covers all aspects of 2022, including sizes, calibers, and types. Continue reading to find the best deal.

Caliber and Bullet Sizes

When it comes to guns, caliber refers to the diameter of the barrel. This is the diameter of the bullet which will pass through the barrel. Although calibers refer to bullet sizes, this is not the correct term. This is because the bullet does not contain any metal projectiles.

The cartridge is what you fire. It includes the powder, casing and primer. This is difficult for casual shooters to grasp and may lead to the purchase of an incorrect bullet size.

There are many calibers to choose from, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

The Rifle Cartridge

The rifle and the cartridge are the most important parts of the shooting process. While the rifle is important, the most crucial part of the shooting process is the cartridge.

There are many options available when buying cartridges. It all depends on what you need.

There are both small and large calibers depending on the type of shooting you are doing.Rifle cartridge cutaway view

There are several factors to consider when choosing caliber sizes

These are the factors and units that can help you select the right size caliber.

  • Energy is the approximate power of each round.
  • Bullet weight: This is often measured in grams, with 7,000 being one pound. This is the highest-level trait. This simply refers to the number of shots it will take to hit the target.
  • Velocity is the speed at which the bullet travels in feet/sec
  • Price point: This is the price for a single round

Common Bullet Calibers In Use Today

There are many bullet calibers on the market, but you will likely only use a handful in your lifetime. Why is this? Many people use their guns for the exact same purposes, mostly for hunting, sport, and self-defense. These are some of the most commonly used bullet calibers. You will most likely find what you need from this list.

.22LR

It is the most widely-sold caliber on the market, with over 900 units sold. This small round has low recoil for handguns and rifles. Instead of a centrefire, the.22 rifle uses a rimfire. The firing pin is designed so that it hits only the rim of a case, not the center.

This rifle is popular for its speed and small size. It’s also very easy to use. This rifle is a great choice for beginners looking for an easy-to-use caliber. They also have the power they need in order to reach their goals.

This cartridge is ideal for small game hunting, firearms training and recreational shooting. The cartridge is also available in bulk. You can buy it in bulk.

Subsonic rounds are smaller and therefore slower. To make their job easier, they are fitted with extra-heavy ammunition. Bullets typically have a 46-61 grain weight.

The caliber is designed to fire smaller targets such as birds, snakes, and rats. It is best for target shooting. It can cause severe damage to human targets and even kill. The smaller calibers can bounce inside and around the body of a human. This can lead to the tearing of ligaments and organs.

Bullet weight for this caliber is 30-40 grains. It can travel at speeds between 1200-1600 feet per second and has an energy of 140-160 Joules. It costs 7 cents per point. This makes it an excellent choice for beginners.

.30 Carbine

Although this caliber is rare these days, it has a long history. This caliber was, for example, used in M1 carbines in World War 2. It was extremely popular up until the Korean War. It may not be used as much these days, but it is still the best caliber available for people who use the M1.

The caliber was one of the first personal defence weapons on the market. It was so loved by combatants that it did not interfere with their tasks and duties. It is lightweight and portable, at just a little over 5 pounds. The length of the caliber is 36 inches. The caliber also included non-corrosive primers which was something not possible with other calibers used by the military back then.

It is still just as popular today. It also comes with an economical plinker that makes loading it easy. You can use it with propellants that are fast-burning. It can also be used with Winchester 110 grain FMJ bullets to ensure consistent accuracy.

It is 110g in weight and has a speed of 2000 ft/s. It has a 1300 Joules of energy and a 40 cents per point price.

.25 ACP

In this case, the ACP stands for Automatic Colt Pistol. This centerfire pistol caliber has a semi-rimmed and straight walled. This was originally designed for blowback pistols with no breech locking mechanism.

This caliber is slightly larger than.22, but also more powerful. This caliber was created to be at least equal in performance to the.22. It is true that only a handful of guns can use this caliber. It is also a bit more costly.

It is extremely reliable, especially with its center fire casings. The.25 ACP is slightly more powerful than the.22. It is also very short-ranged and low-powered. It is therefore less dangerous when it is used on people.

The.25 ACP delivers excellent performance and is very compact. It is also light in weight.

Because of its unique centerfire case design, it could make a great personal defense handgun. This makes it more reliable.

.300 BLK

The Three Hundred Blackout is simply known as this new addition to the rifle world. It was introduced to the market six years ago. Its primary purpose is to bring the larger.30 caliber round onto the AR platform. It can provide excellent control for most modern magazines.

Because of its power and flexibility, the caliber is enjoying a lot of popularity. For instance, it can perform under many conditions. To give it even greater flexibility, it can use adjustable gas blocks. The subsonic bullet can penetrate and expand below the surface. This makes the.300 BLK an ideal shooting range firearm.

You can load it quickly with practice. This is especially important if you need to defend yourself quickly.

Its self-defense potential is very high. The carbine is more than a defensive pistol. To make your.300 BLK even more useful, you can add an AR 15 pistol.

It is 125 grams in weight and has a velocity of 2200 feet per second. It has energy of 1360 Joules, and a cost point of 70c per round.

.380 ACP

This may be an option for anyone who prefers larger bullet sizes. It is sometimes called the 9mm short. The popularity of the 9mm short has increased significantly since the introduction of different pocket guns on the market. It is beloved by so many people, and it is also entertaining.

It has a low recoil, and can penetrate deep when shot from a close distance. It is however, a low-powered round. It is unlikely that it will be of any benefit to you if it’s not fired at close range, considering the nature and purpose of the guns used to shoot it.

There is one catch. The.380 ACP is a compact and easy-to-carry weapon. It is also compact and lightweight. It can be easily carried anywhere the user wants it to go.

It has a shorter range and less stopping power than some modern pistol cartridges.

This self-defense cartridge is still very popular with shooters who prefer light pistols that have a low recoil and a small pistol.

.223 or 0.56×45 mm

You can buy this round in both military and civilian grades. This cartridge is very accurate and can shoot softly. It is larger than the.22LR.

It is illegal to hunt large game in certain states because it is considered inhumane. However, you can use it at your home to kill pests in your garden or other things.

This round isn’t used primarily for hunting and is therefore not very popular. However, it is safe and reliable enough to be used for self-defense.

Its bullet weight ranges from 55 to 62 grains, and it can travel at speeds of 3, 100 feet per second. It has a energy of 1.770 Joules, and a cost per point of 30c per round.

9mm

Officially, it is called the 9mm Luger (or the 9x9mm Parabellum). It is basically used to distinguish it from other 9mm rounds. This round is great for anyone who wants to have some fun shooting at close range. It’s also great for self defense.

This bullet is used in NATO countries as well as most police forces around the world. It is light in shooting.

This bullet is exactly the same as the one used in the.380 special and the.38 standard. They use the same amount of powder as in the.380 and.38 special.

The caliber weight ranges between 115 to 147 grains. Its stopping power also varies depending on the bullet used. This is just one example.

They are extremely affordable and have low recoil. These bullets can be used in many guns. Guns can hold approximately 15 to 17 of these bullets on average.

A 9mm gun can be used for concealed carry. It costs only 25 cents.

.40 S&W

The FBI originally designed this bullet type as a compact 10mm cartridge. This bullet type has been extremely popular, especially among law enforcement agencies in Canada, Australia, and the United States. This powerful cartridge is only 30 cents and has more punch than many of the handgun cartridges available today, especially the 9mm.

It is light and affordable, which will make it a favorite. Its weight can vary greatly between 155 to 160 and 180 grains.

The 9mm cartridge is still preferred by most FBI agents. It is faster and more accurate than the.40 S&W, but it has more energy and manageable recoil.

After passing a series of tests, it has been deemed the best cartridge for personal defense or law enforcement.

.62x51mm /.308

The civilian version of the 7.62 cartridge, the.308 cartridge, is the.308 cartridge. However, it is larger and more attractive than the NATO round.

However, it is more expensive than other cartridges its size and power. Its high recoil and size are why it isn’t as popular as it should be. You will enjoy its knockdown power and extended range. These features more than make up for the cons.

The most popular caliber for snipers around the globe is the.308 It can travel at speeds between 2,600 and 2,700 feet per second, and has an energy of between 3,300 to 3,500 Joules. It costs 75 cents per shot and weighs between 147 to 175 grains.

.45 ACP

This cartridge was made for the 1911 pistol. This cartridge has a long history. It is large in size and has a lot of stopping power.

It has been the best choice for many police officers and military personnel for a long period. It has been a worthy choice for many military personnel and police officers.

The.45ACP bullet is a large bullet, approximately 230gins in weight, with moderate recoil. This bullet requires skills in gun shooting and may not be the best choice if you are a beginner. Its stopping power is one of its most popular features.

For self defense and practice, the.45 ACP is highly recommended. It is available for purchase at 40 cents today.

These are only a few of the most popular calibers on the market today. There are many other calibers that you will find on the market, as well as those that aren’t so common but are still very good at shooting. Below are some less-common bullet calibers.

Common bullet calibers less

The 10mm

This caliber is very heavy and might prove difficult to use by many people. It was then downgraded to.40 S&W, and finally to 9mm. It is known for its high stopping power and strong recoil.

Blackout:.300

This one was made to rival the performance of the larger.30 caliber AK 7.62x39mm, even though it was intended for the AR 15.

.357 Magnum

This is a significant improvement on the.38 special, which was primarily designed for revolvers. Its great stopping power is what makes it so popular. However, this is a price it has to pay for decent recoil. It costs 80 cents.

.30 Carbine

This caliber is very light and has been used extensively, especially during the Korean War. The standard bullet is 110 grains in weight.

Let’s now look at the most common bullet types and their terminologies.

Common Bullet Types

These are just a few of the terms you’ll encounter when you shop for bullets.

1. OTM or Open Tip Bullets

These bullets have an opening at their top, which is typical of the type that was made. These openings are small and therefore do not expand. They are made of small cups, so the bottom of the cups makes up the bullet’s bottom.

OTMs are Open Tip Matches, because they are loved by long-distance shooters. They are also more consistent which is why they are great for shooting hundreds of yards.

These bullets are best for target shooting. It can be used by the military, but hunters are prohibited from using it. This is because it is considered a hollow bullet that expands when it hits its target.

2. Soft Point bullets

It is basically a soft point bullet with a jacket that expands when it hits its target. The bullet has a soft-metal core, enclosed by a strong metal jacket that is left open at its tip.

Once it touches flesh, the bullet will likely expand. The bullet can cause severe injury, sometimes even greater than its diameter.

3. FMJ, or the Full Jacket Metal

This bullet is the most widely used on the market. This is the bullet you will find in most homes. It has a soft center metal, such as lead, and is protected by a more hardy metal on the exterior, like copper.

These bullets can be round, flat or pointy. They often cut small channels through which the bullets pass through the target. They can be used for self-defense but they are not ideal for close range shooting.

This bullet has a lot of advantages. It is usually surrounded by copper or other metals. This prevents lead from accumulating in the barrel of your gun when you fire it.9mm Full Metal Jacket vs. 9mm Hollow Point

4. HP, or the Hollow Point bullets

These bullets are made in such a manner that they expand upon hitting the target. They are mostly used by police officers because of their stopping power. They are ideal for people who want a concealed weapon, as well as those using guns for home defense.

Many people consider these bullets to be the most dangerous for home defence. However, they are the most secure to use in an attack. Because every bullet you fire does more damage. This allows you to quickly stop an attacker.

5. Ballistic Tip

This bullet has the same aerodynamics as a Full Jacket bullet but with the stopping power and hollow point bullet. This hollow point bullet is basically covered in plastic to make it look like the FJM.

It is used primarily for hunting.

The bullet has a long tail and a boat tail. Its rear is where most of its weight lies. It is sharp and has a plastic tip that can retain its shape for maximum consistency.

Bird shots

These are different types of shotgun rounds. These are small pellets that can be packed into one shell. These pellets are great for hunting birds or for any other purpose than home defense.

  • Slugs

These are single rounds of approximately 1 oz each. These can be very painful. Although they aren’t very accurate, a good shooter can use them to accurately aim at targets up to 100 yards.

  • Buck Shots

This is the most effective home defense system available.

These are just a few of the many details available. For more information, please visit here

Parts of a Caliber and Cartridge

Why is this important? It is crucial for many people to know how to load their own ammunition. Shooting can be very expensive. Learning to do things yourself can help you save money.

It is important to first understand what you are dealing. A cartridge is the ammunition used in a rifle or handgun. There are two main types of cartridges today:

  • The centerfire Its primer is located in its center. These are the most popular types of cartridges. These cartridges can be reloaded.
  • The rimfire is a primer that is embedded in the rim. These cartridges are often very affordable, usually only a few cents each. These cartridges cannot however be reloaded.

Each cartridge has four main components:

  • The case is what holds the primer, powder, and bullet together
  • Primer- This is a compound which explodes when it is strung with the firing pin. It ignites the powder
  • The powder- This is what you burn to make gas, which powers the bullet’s bore and muzzle.
  • This is the bullet that hits the target.

Conclusion

It’s true that choosing the right caliber bullets for your rifle can be difficult. There are many things one must know to be a bullet pro. To make the best purchase, there are many things you need to take into consideration.

We have covered a lot of it. Anyone who doesn’t have the time or desire to talk to gun enthusiasts about bullet selections and other issues should find this useful.

This guide will help you understand the differences in calibers and the pros and cons to make the best decision. Visit HERE if you don’t have a gun.